Civil Disobedience Movement
Introduction: The Civil disobedience movement was an important part of Indian freedom movement. It was led by Mahatma Gandhi against certain laws and commands of the ruling British Government.
Who started the Civil disobedience movement? In India, the Civil disobedience movement was started by Mahatma Gandhi.
Why Gandhi started Civil disobedience movement? In March 1930, Gandhiji wrote in the newspaper, Young India, that he might suspend his civil disobedience or law-breaking movement if the government accepted his eleven-point demands. But Lord Irwin’s government did not respond. So, Gandhiji started the Civil Disobedience Movement.
When was Civil disobedience movement started? It was started with Dandi March (also Salt march, Salt satyagraha) by Mahatma Gandhi on 12th March, 1930. On 12 March, 1930 he along with his 78 followers began a march from the Sabarmati Ashram to “Dandi” on the Gujarat coast. It was a distance of 200 miles. At Dandi a few day s later they violated the salt laws by making salt from sea-water. Thus, began the civil disobedience Movement.
What was the importance of Dandi March (Salt Satyagraha)? The Dandi March aroused great enthusiasm among the people. Everywhere the people began to break the law by selling banned political pamphlets, by showing defiance of section 144 and by with holding rents. Gandhiji called upon the women to begin spinning. In response to his call women took to spinning they also started picketing at the door of Government offices and foreign-goods shops. This participation of the women was a new thing in the freedom struggle. The movement was very tense in Bengal and the north-west. Sarojini Naidu came to the forefront during this movement. In the north-west the most famous leader was Abdul Gaffar Khan, knick-named as “Frontier Gandhi”.
Gandhi-Irwin Pact: The Government had called a round Table conference in 1930 in London. The congress did not join it. In order to make sure that the congress would participate in the second conference, Lord Irwin made a pact with Gandhiji in 1931. In this “Gandhi-Irwin Pact” the Government agreed to let off all political prisoners and to cancel the oppressive laws. The Second Round Table Conference was a failure from India’s point of view. Gandhiji’s demand for full self-government was rejected.
Communal Award: Then on 17 August 1932 came that infamous “Communal Award” of Ramsay MacDonald, the British Prime Minister. By it Muslims, Sikhs and the Hindu scheduled castes were to vote separately. Actually this step was taken to destroy the national unity. Gandhiji strongly opposed it. He went on to fast till death in the prison. Ultimately, caste Hindus and the scheduled caste Hindus were united by the “Pact of Poona” in 1932 under the leadership of Dr. Ambedkar. Meanwhile it was clear to both Gandhiji and the other leaders that the Civil Disobedience Movement was losing its force. So in 19354 Gandhiji called off the movement.
Conclusion: The Civil Disobedience Movement was not successful. But it prepared the people of India for great sacrifice. It was a good training for the people. Unlike the Non-cooperation Movement, the Civil Disobedience Movement increased the popularity of the Congress.
Category: Modern History of IndiaTagged With: Freedom Movements
Also on this day
FDR gives first fireside chat
On this day in 1933, eight days after his inauguration, President Franklin D. Roosevelt gives his first national radio address or “fireside chat,” broadcast directly from the White House. Roosevelt began that first address simply: “I want to talk for a few minutes with the people of the United States about...
Public Notice urges recognition of “humane ladies”
On this day in 1776, in Baltimore, Maryland, a public notice appears in local papers recognizing the sacrifice of women to the cause of the revolution. The notice urged others to recognize women’s contributions and announced, “The necessity of taking all imaginable care of those who may happen to...
Italian auto titan Gianni Agnelli born
On this day in 1921, Giovanni “Gianni” Agnelli, the glamorous, powerful Italian business tycoon who turned Fiat, his family’s car company, into an international conglomerate, is born in Turin, Italy. Agnelli was named for his grandfather, who founded Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino, later known as Fiat, in 1899. As a young...
Red River Campaign begins
On this day in 1864, one of the biggest military fiascos of the Civil War begins as a combined Union force of infantry and riverboatsstarts moving up the Red River in Louisiana. The month-long campaign was poorly managed and achieved none of the objectives set forth by Union commanders. The campaign...
Truman Doctrine is announced
In a dramatic speech to a joint session of Congress, President Harry S. Truman asks for U.S. assistance for Greece and Turkey to forestall communist domination of the two nations. Historians have often cited Truman’s address, which came to be known as the Truman Doctrine, as the official declaration of...
London police conduct drug raid at home of George Harrison
The London drug squad appears at house of George Harrison and Pattie Boyd with a warrant and drug-sniffing canines. Boyd immediately used the direct hotline to Beatles headquarters and George returned to find his home turned upside down. He is reported to have told the officers “You needn’t have turned...
Police recover Elizabeth Smart and arrest her abductors
On this day in 2003, 15-year-old Elizabeth Smart is finally found in Sandy, Utah, nine months after being abducted from her family’s home. Her alleged kidnappers, Brian David Mitchell, a drifter who the Smarts had briefly employed at their house, and his wife, Wanda Barzee, were charged with the kidnapping,...
Hail causes stampede at soccer match in Nepal
On this day in 1988, a sudden hail storm prompts fans at a soccer match in Katmandu, Nepal, to flee. The resulting stampede killed at least 70 people and injured hundreds more. Approximately 30,000 people were watching the game between the Nepalese home team, Janakpur, and Muktijodha, of Bangladesh,...
The Blizzard of 1888
The most severe winter storm ever to hit the New York City region reaches blizzard proportions, costing hundreds of lives and millions of dollars in property damage. Although the storm also struck New England, New York was the hardest hit, with the 36-hour blizzard dumping some 40 inches of snow...
Germany annexes Austria
On March 12, 1938, German troops march into Austria to annex the German-speaking nation for the Third Reich.In early 1938, Austrian Nazis conspired for the second time in four years to seize the Austrian government by force and unite their nation with Nazi Germany. Austrian Chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg, learning...
Reno sworn in as attorney general
Following her confirmation by the U.S. Senate, Janet Reno is sworn in as the first female attorney general of the United States.Born in Miami in 1938, she studied at Harvard Law School and in 1971 was named staff director of the Judiciary Committee of the Florida House of Representatives, where...
Richard Pryor releases Live on the Sunset Strip
On this day in 1982, Live on the Sunset Strip, the latest concert film recorded by the provocative comedian Richard Pryor, arrives in movie theaters. Born in 1940 in Peoria, Illinois, Pryor broke into the New York comedy scene in the early 1960s; he made his national television debut in 1964...
Jack Kerouac is born
Jack Kerouac is born in Lowell, Massachusetts. Kerouac was the son of French-Canadian parents and learned English as a second language. In high school, Kerouac was a star football player and won a scholarship to Columbia University. In World War II, he served in the Navy but was expelled for severe...
The Dixie Chicks backlash begins
In response to the critical comments made about him by Dixie Chicks singer Natalie Maines in the run-up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, President George W. Bush offered this response: “The Dixie Chicks are free to speak their mind. They can say what they want to say.” Of the...
Chinese laborers excluded from U.S.
Agreeing to cooperate with a policy unilaterally adopted by Congress six years earlier, China approves a treaty forbidding Chinese laborers to enter the United States for 20 years. In the 1850s, large numbers of Chinese immigrated to the American West. Most came from the Pearl River Delta region of South...
FDR broadcasts first fireside chat
On this day in 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt holds the first of his radio-broadcast fireside chats. FDR used the informal radio addresses to explain his policies to the American public. In an era before television, cell phones and iPods, FDR used the most immediate and intimate means of communicating...
New York Highlanders join American League
On March 12, 1903, the New York Highlanders are given the go-ahead by team owners to join baseball’s American League. The Highlanders had recently moved from Baltimore, where they were called the Orioles and had a winning tradition dating back to the 1890s. Called the “Yankees” by fans, the team...
McCarthy does well in the Democratic primary
Senator Eugene McCarthy (D-Minnesota), an outspoken critic of the Johnson administration’s policies in Vietnam, polls 42 percent of the vote in New Hampshire’s Democratic presidential primary. President Lyndon B. Johnson got 48 percent. A Harris poll later showed that anti-Johnson, rather than antiwar, sentiment provided the basis for McCarthy’s surprisingly...
Australians withdraw from South Vietnam
The last remnants of the First Australian Task Force withdraw from Vietnam. The Australian government had first sent troops to Vietnam in 1964 with a small aviation detachment and an engineer civic action team. In May 1965, the Australians increased their commitment with the deployment of the 1st Battalion, Royal...
World War I1917
Russian army lends support to rebels in February Revolution
After being called out to quell workers’ demonstrations on the streets of Petrograd (now St. Petersburg), regiment after regiment of soldiers in the city’s army garrison defect to join the rebels on March 12, forcing the resignation of the imperial government and heralding the triumph of the February Revolution in...
World War II1938
Hitler announces an Anschluss with Austria
On this day, Adolf Hitler announces an “Anschluss” (union) between Germany and Austria, in fact annexing the smaller nation into a greater Germany. Union with Germany had been a dream of Austrian Social Democrats since 1919. The rise of Adolf Hitler and his authoritarian rule made such a proposition less attractive,...