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Idols Of The Tribe Leslie Millin Analysis Essay

1. Long Island – Long Island is an island located just off the northeast coast of the United States and a region within the U. S. state of New York. Stretching east-northeast from New York Harbor into the Atlantic Ocean, the island comprises four counties, Kings and Queens to the west, then Nassau, more generally, Long Island may also refer collectively both to the main Island as well as its nearby, surrounding outer barrier islands. North of the island is the Long Island Sound, across from which lie the states of Connecticut, across the Sound, to the northwest, lies Westchester County on mainland New York. To the west, Long Island is separated from the Bronx and the island of Manhattan by the East River. To the extreme southwest, it is separated from the New York City borough of Staten Island and the U. S. state of New Jersey by Upper New York Bay, the Narrows, to the east lie Block Island and numerous smaller islands. Its population density is 5,595.1 inhabitants per square mile, Long Island is culturally and ethnically diverse. Some of the wealthiest and most expensive neighborhoods in the Western Hemisphere are located on Long Island, nine bridges and 13 tunnels connect Brooklyn and Queens to the three other boroughs of New York City. Ferries connect Suffolk County northward across Long Island Sound to the state of Connecticut, the Long Island Rail Road is the busiest commuter railroad in North America and operates 24/7. At the time of European contact, the Lenape people inhabited the western end of Long Island, giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to record an encounter with the Lenapes, after entering what is now New York Bay in 1524. In 1609, the English navigator Henry Hudson explored the harbor, adriaen Block followed in 1615 and is credited as the first European to determine that both Manhattan and Long Island are islands. Native American land deeds recorded by the Dutch from 1636 state that the Indians referred to Long Island as Sewanhaka, sewan was one of the terms for wampum, and is also translated as loose or scattered, which may refer either to the wampum or to Long Island. The name t Lange Eylandt alias Matouwacs appears in Dutch maps from the 1650s, later, the English referred to the land as Nassau Island, after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, Prince of Orange. It is unclear when the name Nassau Island was discontinued, the very first settlements on Long Island were by settlers from England and its colonies in present-day New England. Lion Gardiner settled nearby Gardiners Island, the first settlement on the geographic Long Island itself was on October 21,1640, when Southold was established by the Rev. John Youngs and settlers from New Haven, Connecticut. Peter Hallock, one of the settlers, drew the long straw and was granted the honor to step ashore first and he is considered the first New World settler on Long Island. Southampton was settled in the same year, Hempstead followed in 1644, East Hampton in 1648, Huntington in 1653, and Brookhaven in 1655. While the eastern region of Long Island was first settled by the English, until 1664, the jurisdiction of Long Island was split, roughly at the present border between Nassau County and Suffolk County. The Dutch founded six towns in present-day Brooklyn beginning in 1645 and these included, Brooklyn, Gravesend, Flatlands, Flatbush, New Utrecht, and Bushwick

2. New York (state) – New York is a state in the northeastern United States, and is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, and seventh-most densely populated U. S. state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont to the east. With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015, New York City is the most populous city in the United States, the New York Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State, two-thirds of the states population lives in the New York City Metropolitan Area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island. Both the state and New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography and these more mountainous regions are bisected by two major river valleys—the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley, which forms the core of the Erie Canal. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes Region and straddles Lake Ontario, between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward from settlements at Montreal for trade, the British annexed the colony from the Dutch in 1664. The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state, New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom, democracy, and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. On April 17,1524 Verrazanno entered New York Bay, by way of the now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita. Verrazzano described it as a vast coastline with a delta in which every kind of ship could pass and he adds. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats and he landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazannos stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Marthas Vineyard, in 1540 French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany, due to flooding, it was abandoned the next year. In 1614, the Dutch under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, also within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse, located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary fort was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange was built nearby in 1623. Henry Hudsons 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area, sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that year

3. State University of New York at Oneonta – The State University of New York College at Oneonta is a four-year liberal arts college in Oneonta, New York, United States, with approximately 6,100 students. The college offers a variety of bachelors degree programs and a number of graduate degrees. Many academic programs at SUNY Oneonta hold national accreditations, including programs in Business Economics, Education, Music Industry, Human Ecology and it was located in a building nicknamed Old Main at the top of Maple Street in the city of Oneonta. The schools first principal was James M. Milne, for whom the current library is named. For nearly 40 years, Old Main was the building on campus. Bugbee, the principal of the Oneonta Normal School, Bugbee School provided an on-campus training facility for the student teachers attending the normal school. In 1948, the became a founding member of the State University of New York system. Royal F. Netzer was the president from 1951–1970, presiding over a period of tremendous growth. The three joined buildings known as the Morris Conference Complex were the first ones erected on the current campus, the cornerstone of the current building was laid in 1950, with one wing being completed in February 1951 and the other in September 1951. The two wings, Bacon and Denison Halls, were used as dormitories, which were much needed on the rapidly expanding campus. In 1952, the Faculty-Student Association Inc. purchased a 63-acre farm about four miles north of the college and this was the site for development of todays 272-acre College Camp, which provides educational, recreational and social opportunities for the college community. Home economics programs were added to the teacher education programs. In 1954, a Home Economics building and heating plant were constructed on the upper campus and these were followed in 1958 with the construction of a womens dormitory, Wilber Hall, followed by Tobey Hall in 1959. The 1960s were a period of growth in the colleges operating budget, student enrollment, number of staff members. To alleviate the shortage of classrooms,10 mobile classrooms were brought in as a temporary solution, additional property was acquired to the north and west of the campus, providing two entrances from West Street, one near a new service building. The first library on the campus was built in what is todays Alumni Hall. Other new buildings on the campus included a dorm, Littell Hall, a cafeteria. A path connected the campus with Old Main, which was slowly being phased out as the main academic building

4. New York University – New York University is a private nonprofit research university based in New York City. Founded in 1831, NYU is considered one of the worlds most influential research universities, University rankings compiled by Times Higher Education, U. S. News & World Report, and the Academic Ranking of World Universities all rank NYU amongst the top 32 universities in the world. NYU is a part of the creativity, energy and vibrancy that is Manhattan, located with its core in Greenwich Village. Among its faculty and alumni are 37 Nobel Laureates, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, over 30 Academy Award winners, alumni include heads of state, royalty, eminent mathematicians, inventors, media figures, Olympic medalists, CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, and astronauts. NYU alumni are among the wealthiest in the world, according to The Princeton Review, NYU is consistently considered by students and parents as a Top Dream College. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish in this immense, a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all. A three-day-long literary and scientific convention held in City Hall in 1830 and these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18,1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the merchants, bankers. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institutions first president, the university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was officially renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, in 1835, the School of Law, NYUs first professional school, was established. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU and it became one of the nations largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding, the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU also had a desire to follow New York Citys development further uptown, NYUs move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken. The University Heights campus was far more spacious than its predecessor was, as a result, most of the universitys operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYUs administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead and this extension would later become a fully independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the citys institutions, including NYU

5. ESPN – ESPN is a U. S. -based global cable and satellite sports television channel owned by ESPN Inc. a joint venture between The Walt Disney Company and the Hearst Corporation. ESPN broadcasts primarily from studio facilities located in Bristol, Connecticut, the network also operates offices in Miami, New York City, Seattle, Charlotte, and Los Angeles. John Skipper currently serves as president of ESPN, a position he has held since January 1,2012, as of February 2015, ESPN is available to approximately 94,396,000 paid television households in the United States. In 2011, ESPNs history and rise was chronicled by These Guys Have All the Fun, Bill Rasmussen conceived the concept of ESPN in late May 1978, after he was fired from his job with the World Hockey Associations New England Whalers. One of the first steps in Bill and his son Scotts process was finding land to build the channels broadcasting facilities, the Rasmussens first rented office space in Plainville, Connecticut. However, the plan to base ESPN there was put on hold because a local ordinance prohibiting buildings from bearing rooftop satellite dishes and this helped the credibility of the fledgling company, however there were still many doubters to the viability of their sports channel concept. ESPN launched on September 7,1979, beginning with the first telecast of what would become the flagship program. Taped in front of a live audience inside the Bristol studios. ESPNs next big break came when the acquired the rights to broadcast coverage of the early rounds of the NCAA Mens Division I Basketball Tournament. It first aired the NCAA tournament in March 1980, creating the modern day television event known as March Madness. The channels tournament coverage also launched the career of Dick Vitale. In April of that year, ESPN created another made-for-TV spectacle, the next major stepping stone for ESPN came over the course of a couple of months in 1984. During this time period, the American Broadcasting Company purchased 100% of ESPN from the Rasmussens, for years, the NFL, NBA and Major League Baseball refused to consider cable as a means of broadcasting some of their games. However, with the backing of ABC, ESPNs ability to compete for major sports contracts greatly increased, later in 1984, the U. S. ESPNs Sunday Night Football games would become the highest-rated NFL telecasts for the next 17 years. In 1992, ESPN launched ESPN Radio, a sports talk radio network providing analysis. It became the fastest growing cable channel in the U. S. during the 1990s, ownership of ABC, and in effect control of ESPN, was acquired first by Capital Cities Communications in 1985, and then by The Walt Disney Company in 1996. In 2012, ESPN generated more revenue for Disney than any of its other properties combined, alongside its live sports broadcasts, ESPN also airs a variety of sports highlight, talk, and documentary-styled shows. 30 for 30 started airing in 2009 and continues airing to this day, each episode is through the eyes of a well known filmmaker and has featured some of the biggest directors in Hollywood

6. Saint Joseph's University – The University was founded in 1851 as Saint Josephs College by the Society of Jesus. Saint Josephs is the seventh oldest Jesuit university in the United States and it has 17 centers and institutes, including the prestigious Kinney Center for Autism Education & Support and Pedro Arrupe Center for Business Ethics. Saint Josephs has grown in size and scope since 2001 with the addition of the Maguire Campus, construction of new campus buildings. For the 2014 U. S. News and World Report rankings, in the Masters Universities category, the Saint Josephs University athletics teams are called the Hawks. The Hawks are a NCAA Division I program that compete in the Atlantic-10 Conference, the official colors of the University are crimson and grey. The school mascot is the famous Hawk, which never stops flapping its wings while in costume, approximately,100 Jesuits live on campus with 18 serving as faculty. The universitys Jesuit Community lives in the Loyola Center, directly across the street from Barbelin Hall, the Loyola Center joins Manresa Hall, which is the home of the infirm Jesuits, and features a Carriage House. Other Jesuit residences include St. Alphonsus House and Faber Hall, a few Jesuits also live in residence halls, the university president maintains an apartment in the Merion Gardens Apartment building. The university also uses its Jesuit identity in its branding. The university began The Magis campaign in 2013 to highlight this commitment to living greater, the Magis is taken from the motto of the society of Jesus Ad maiorem Dei gloriam, meaning for For the greater glory of God. The university also promotes the Jesuit principle of cura personalis or Care for the whole person, the university requires undergraduates to complete a rigorous general education program that focuses heavily on traditional liberal arts disciplines. Every general education class is titled 154, which stands for the year 1540 AD when the Society of Jesus was accepted by the Pope, on September 27,2015, Pope Francis, himself a Jesuit, made a stop at the University during his two-day visit to Philadelphia. The Seal of Saint Josephs University signifies many things that show the history, many of the symbols are not unique to Saint Josephs and appear on the seals of other Jesuit educational institutions. The wolves are over a pot to show the generosity of the Loyola family towards the poor. Tradition claims that the Loyolas provided so much food for their soldiers that even the wolves had enough to eat, IHM are the letters JES in Greek, which stands for Jesus. This symbol regularly represents the Jesuits, the stripes signify the 7 sons of the House of Loyola, who died defending their home from the Moors. The lily is used to represent Saint Joseph, wherever he is present. The seal is the graphical representation of Saint Josephs and its uniquely Jesuit identity

7. The Philadelphia Inquirer – The Philadelphia Inquirer is a morning daily newspaper that serves the Philadelphia metropolitan area of the United States. The newspaper was founded by John R. Walker and John Norvell in June 1829 as The Pennsylvania Inquirer and is the third-oldest surviving daily newspaper in the United States. Owned by Philadelphia Media Network, The Inquirer has the eighteenth largest average weekday U. S. newspaper circulation and has won nineteen Pulitzer Prizes and it is the newspaper of record in the Delaware Valley. The paper has risen and fallen in prominence throughout its history, the Inquirer first became a major newspaper during the American Civil War when its war coverage was popular on both sides. The papers circulation dropped after the war, then rose by the end of the 19th century, by the end of the 1960s, The Inquirer trailed its chief competitor, the Philadelphia Evening Bulletin, and lacked modern facilities and experienced staff. In the 1970s, new owners and editors turned the newspaper one of the countrys most prominent. Stan Wischnowski is Vice President of News Operations, the Philadelphia Inquirer was founded as The Pennsylvania Inquirer by printer John R. Walker and John Norvell, former editor of Philadelphias largest newspaper, the Aurora & Gazette. Founded on June 1,1829, The Philadelphia Inquirer is the third-oldest surviving daily newspaper in the United States, however, in 1962, an Inquirer-commissioned historian traced The Inquirer to John Dunlaps The Pennsylvania Packet, which was founded on October 28,1771. In 1850, The Packet was merged with another newspaper, The North American, after Harding acquired The Pennsylvania Inquirer, it was briefly published as an afternoon paper before returning to its original morning format in January 1830. Under Harding, in 1829, The Inquirer moved from its location between Front and Second Streets to between Second and Third Streets. When Harding bought and merged the Morning Journal in January 1830, Ten years later The Inquirer again was moved, this time to its own building at the corner of Third Street and Carters Alley. Harding expanded The Inquirers content and the paper grew into a major Philadelphian newspaper. The expanded content included the addition of fiction, and in 1840, at the time the common practice was to pay little or nothing for the rights of foreign authors works. Harding retired in 1859 and was succeeded by his son William White Harding, William Harding changed the name of the newspaper to its current name, The Philadelphia Inquirer. Harding, in an attempt to increase circulation, cut the price of the paper, in 1859, circulation had been around 7,000, by 1863 it had increased to 70,000. Part of the increase was due to the interest in news during the American Civil War, the Philadelphia Inquirer supported the Union, but Harding wanted their coverage to remain neutral. Confederate generals often sought copies of the paper, believing that the war coverage was accurate. Inquirer journalist Uriah Hunt Painter was at the First Battle of Bull Run in 1861, initial reports from the government claimed a Union victory, but The Inquirer went with Painters firsthand account

8. United States – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci

9. United States Navy – The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U. S. Navy is the largest, most capable navy in the world, the U. S. Navy has the worlds largest aircraft carrier fleet, with ten in service, two in the reserve fleet, and three new carriers under construction. The service has 323,792 personnel on duty and 108,515 in the Navy Reserve. It has 274 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of October 2016, the U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which was established during the American Revolutionary War and was effectively disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. It played a role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy. It played the role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, which is headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is an admiral and the senior naval officer of the Department of the Navy. The CNO may not be the highest ranking officer in the armed forces if the Chairman or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The mission of the Navy is to maintain, train and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression, the United States Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States. The Navys three primary areas of responsibility, The preparation of naval forces necessary for the prosecution of war. The development of aircraft, weapons, tactics, technique, organization, U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is to prepare and conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest, as part of that establishment, the U. S. Navys functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to sealift duties. It follows then as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, the Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors, captains, and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia, the establishment of a national navy was an issue of debate among the members of the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy, then the worlds preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships, and reported the captures to the Congress

10. Lieutenant (navy) – Lieutenant is a commissioned officer rank in many nations navies. It is typically the most senior of junior officer ranks, the ranks insignia usually consists of two medium gold braid stripes and often the uppermost stripe features a loop or executive curl. The now immediately senior rank of lieutenant commander was formerly a naval lieutenant rank. Many navies also use a rank of sub-lieutenant. The appointment of first lieutenant in many navies is held by a senior lieutenant, a navy lieutenant ranks higher than an army lieutenant, the navy rank of lieutenant is a NATO OF-2 and ranks with an army captain. From at least 1580, the lieutenant on a ship had been the officer immediately subordinate to the captain, before the English Restoration, lieutenants were appointed by their captains, and this inevitably led to abuses and to the widespread appointment of men of insufficient qualification. In 1677, Samuel Pepys introduced the first examination for lieutenant, lieutenants were numbered by their seniority within the ship, so that a frigate would have a first lieutenant, a second lieutenant, and a third lieutenant. A first-rate ship was entitled to six, and they were numbered accordingly, as the rank structure of navies stabilised, and the ranks of commander, lieutenant commander and sub-lieutenant were introduced, the naval lieutenant today ranks with an army captain. In the United States Navy, promotion to lieutenant is governed by Department of Defense policies derived from the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980, DOPMA guidelines suggest 95% of lieutenants should be promoted to lieutenant after serving a minimum of two years at their present rank. The insignia of a lieutenant in many navies, including the Royal Navy and this pattern was copied by the United States Navy and various air forces for their equivalent ranks grades, except that the loop is removed. The first lieutenant in the Royal Navy and other Commonwealth navies, is a post or appointment, historically, the lieutenants in a ship were ranked in accordance with seniority, with the most senior being termed the first lieutenant and acting as the second-in-command. Although lieutenants are no longer numbered by seniority, the post of first lieutenant remains, the post of first lieutenant in a shore establishment carries a similar responsibility to that of the first lieutenant of a capital ship. In the US Navy or US Coast Guard, the billet of first lieutenant describes the officer in charge of the department or division. On submarines and smaller Coast Guard cutters, the billet of first lieutenant may be filled by a petty officer

11. United Nations Medal – The medal is ranked in militaries and police forces as a service medal. The United Nations awarded its first medal during the Korean War, since 1955, many additional United Nations medals have been created and awarded for participation in various United Nations missions and actions around the world. The most common United Nations medal is the standard U. N. decoration known simply as the United Nations Medal, most countries bestow this award for any action in which a member of the military participated in a joint U. N. activity. In situations where a service member participated in multiple U. N. operations, service stars, campaign clasps and these devices vary depending on the regulations of the various armed forces. The UN has authorised the award of numerals to be attached to the medal ribbon, the military forces of the Netherlands are awarded the medal for service to January 1,1955, while the armed forces of Thailand and Sweden grant the award to July 27,1955. In 1956, to maintain the peace brought the end of the Suez Crisis the United Nations Emergency Force was established. This was the first Peacekeeping operation of the United Nations, the mission lasted from November 1956 until June 1967. It is unique from other United Nations Medals in that instead of saying UN on the obverse, subsequent missions did not use the missions abbreviation on its medals. In most nations, the standard United Nations Medal is awarded in lieu of a specific medal. Most operations utilize a different ribbon for each mission, though there have some notable exceptions. The United Nations Mission in Haiti was originally established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 867 on 23 September 1993 and this mission was an effort to end the conflict and instability caused by the 1991 Haitian coup détat. Subsequent missions to maintain stability and train the Haitian National Police were undertaken under UNSMIH, UNTMIH, MIPONUH and these subsequent missions all used the same medal as UNMIH. In East Timor, the awarded for UNAMET, UNTAET and UNMISET all have the same ribbon. For 90 days of service with a United Nations mission or organization where there is no specific approved United Nations medal, some examples of qualifying service are the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq, or the United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs Accelerated De-Mining Programme in Mozambique. In the United States armed forces, prior to 13 October 1995, all US military personnel wore the blue, on 13 October 1995, the Assistant Secretary of Defense approved a change to the wear policy of the United Nations Medal. No more than one UN medal or ribbon may be worn at a time, however, authorization for use must be formally requested for every single medal, and is granted on an individual basis. Regulations for the use of medals or ribbons apply for each uniform. In the Argentinian Army, a national-issued, maroon-and-white bar showing the number of tours of duty may be worn in lieu of the UN-issued ribbons, international decoration Common Security and Defence Policy Service Medal Multinational Force and Observers Medal NATO Medal United Nations Medal United Nations Medals

12. Philadelphia – In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for African-Americans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make Philadelphia a top international study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational, with a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation. Philadelphia is the center of activity in Pennsylvania and is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is growing, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016 including several prominent skyscrapers. The city is known for its arts, culture, and rich history, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States. The 67 National Historic Landmarks in the city helped account for the $10 billion generated by tourism, Philadelphia is the only World Heritage City in the United States. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon, the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are also called Delaware Indians and their territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape, surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States independence pushed them further west, in the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with communities living also in Wisconsin, Ontario. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony, in 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their defeat of the English colony of Maryland

13. National Football League – The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four professional sports leagues in North America. The NFLs 17-week regular season runs from the week after Labor Day to the week after Christmas, with each team playing 16 games, the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, and the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season, the merger was completed in 1970. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States. S. The NFLs executive officer is the commissioner, who has authority in governing the league. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen, the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Atlanta Falcons 34–28 in Super Bowl LI. Another meeting held on September 17,1920 resulted in the renaming of the league to the American Professional Football Association, the league hired Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of 14 teams. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain, the first event occurred on September 26,1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3,1920, the first full week of league play occurred, the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans. In 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League, in 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. This method had used since the leagues creation in 1920. The league quickly determined that a game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the leagues champion. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, the 1934 season also marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure, the NFL was always the foremost professional football league in the United States, it nevertheless faced a large number of rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three separate American Football Leagues and the All-America Football Conference, on top of regional leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams

14. SportsCenter – SportsCenter is a daily sports news television program that serves as the flagship program of American cable and satellite television network ESPN. ESPN is currently sponsoring SportsCenter and many other productions. SportsCenter airs live each weekday from 7,00 a. m. to 1,30 p. m.6,00 p. m.11,00 p. m. midnight, and 1,00 a. m. The 1,00 a. m. edition is often repeated until 7,00 a. m, on Sundays, an hour-long episode airs at 8,00 a. m. Eastern, with another edition of varying length airing at 10,00 a. m, Eastern Time, the 11,00 p. m. edition airs for 90 minutes on Sundays and is repeated throughout the night. In the event of live coverage on the network, the program is occasionally delayed or moved to either ESPN2 or ESPNews until the event concludes. The program also is known to early and run long. Eastern edition of SportsCenter has been produced live from Los Angeles, from 2006 to 2013, Major League Baseball only allowed ongoing game highlights to air during SportsCenter within the Baseball Tonight Extra segments in the broadcast. The National Football League does not permit the use of highlights for games that are ongoing at all, ESPN is traditionally unable to air highlights of Olympic events until after they have aired on tape-delay on NBC or its co-owned sister cable networks. SportsCenter was conceived in 1979, and created by ESPN executives Chet Simmons, the program was originally anchored by Chris Berman, George Grande, Greg Gumbel, Lee Leonard, Bob Ley, Sal Marchiano and Tom Mees. Grande introduced the country to ESPN when he co-anchored the premiere episode of SportsCenter on September 7,1979 with Leonard, Grande spent ten more years with ESPN and SportsCenter until he left the network in 1989. Ley also began anchoring early in the history and still regularly appears on the Sunday morning edition of the program. In 1988, the format was changed by executive producer Walsh from focusing on individual sports or leagues to a newspaper style structure. As a result, the program began airing stories based on their importance, the programs title sequence during its early years included various kinds of sports balls flying outward, set to a rapid-fire electronic music version of Pulstar by Vangelis. By 1989, the first of several songs to incorporate ESPNs trademark six-note fanfare went into use. The current version of the theme was composed in 2006 by Annie Roboff, throughout the 1990s, SportsCenters set underwent many changes. In 1994, ESPN launched the This is SportsCenter advertising campaign, the team of Dan Patrick and Keith Olbermann – who anchored the 11,00 p. m. edition of the program – achieved great popularity during the late 1980s and the 1990s. In 2001, Toronto-based Bell Globemedia and ESPN jointly acquired the Canadian sports network TSN, on September 11,2001, ESPN interrupted regular programming at 11,05 a. m

15. Sunday NFL Countdown – Sunday NFL Countdown is a pregame show of all the NFL action for that week. The official name is Sunday NFL Countdown presented by Snickers, the show airs on ESPN, ESPN HD, TSN and TSN HD from 11 a. m. to 1 p. m. Eastern time every Sunday during the National Football League regular season. In Europe it is aired by ESPN America and it is very similar to The NFL Today on CBS and Fox NFL Sunday, which airs on Fox. The shows former names include NFL GameDay from 1985 to 1995, NFL Countdown from 1996 to 1997, in 2006, the program introduced new graphics and a new logo to resemble the networks Monday Night Football logo. Chris Berman had been the studio host since 1986 succeeding Bob Ley, jack Youngblood was the first analyst. In 1987, he was replaced by Pete Axthelm and Tom Jackson, the shows awards include seven Sports Emmy Awards for Outstanding Weekly Show and five CableACE Awards. On September 7,2014, which was the 35th anniversary of ESPNs launch, with it, came a new logo and also, a new graphics package similar to that of SportsCenter. Like SportsCenter, a Helvetica font is used, but with the lower-thirds having white text on a black background, starting September 8, every NFL show produced at ESPN now shares its new graphics, new logo, and a new set. On September 13,2015, Sunday NFL Countdown was shortened from 3 hours to 2 hours, therefore, Sunday NFL Countdown was moved down an hour to 11 a. m. The show usually originates from Bristol, but it originates in the city hosting the Super Bowl for its Super Bowl edition. On November 20,2016, the show originated from Mexico City, in January 2017, ESPN announced that Berman would leave the show at the end of the 2016-17 season, ending his 31-year tenure as host of this program. On July 14,2003, ESPN announced that Rush Limbaugh would be joining the show as a commentator when it premiered on September 7. Limbaugh would provide the voice of the fan and was supposed to spark debate on the show, on September 28, Limbaugh commented about Donovan McNabb, the quarterback of the Philadelphia Eagles, Sorry to say this, I dont think hes been that good from the get-go. I think what weve had here is a social concern in the NFL. The media has been very desirous that a black quarterback do well, there is a little hope invested in McNabb, and he got a lot of credit for the performance of this team that he didnt deserve. On October 1,2003, less than one week after that comment, the following Sunday on air Tom Jackson said about Limbaugh, Let me just say that it was not our decision to have Rush Limbaugh on this show. He was brought here to talk football, and he broke that trust, Rush told us the social commentary for which he is so well known would not cross over to our show, and instead, he would represent the viewpoint of the intelligent, passionate fan. Rush Limbaugh was not a fit for NFL Countdown, in February 2007, ESPN confirmed an earlier report in the Dallas Morning News that Michael Irvin would not be brought back to the show or to the network

16. Monday Night Countdown – Monday Night Countdown, which debuted in 1993 on ESPN, is a television program featuring analysis and news on that nights NFL game to be broadcast on ESPN. The show was originally titled NFL Prime Monday from 1993-97 before it was renamed Monday Night Countdown in 1998, the official name of the show is Monday Night Countdown served by Applebees. The shows previous sponsor was UPS, when it debuted, it was one of the first cross-pollinations between ESPN and ABC Sports, which each largely operated under separate management at the time. The show was hosted by Mike Tirico along with analysts Joe Theismann, Craig James, Phil Simms. Mike Ditka also discusses certain topics and Chris Mortensen brings news, john Clayton is also a regular guest on the show. Former presenters include Mike Tirico, Bill Parcells, Michael Irvin, during the 2005 season, it enjoyed its best ratings ever and was the highest-rated studio sports show on cable television. On occasion, the crew appeared on-site at the game, but for the most part the show is aired from the studios in Bristol, in 2006, the show began appearing at the Monday Night Football site live as the game moved to ESPN from ABC. Ron Jaworski also contributed to the show along with Chris Mortensen, Ed Werder, also, in 2006 Monday Night Countdown introduced a new logo and new graphics as part of The Syndicates new NFL package for ESPN. In the same fashion as all ESPN NFL studio shows, Monday Night Countdown adopted ABCs alternate football musical theme, though presented as a shuffle. Beginning with the 2007, the show cutback its onsite presence by having its main team at ESPN studios in Bristol. The Bristol team was Berman, Jackson, Mortensen, Mike Ditka, Keyshawn Johnson, the on-site team is Scott, Young, and Emmitt Smith. The Bristol team was Berman, Jackson, Mortensen, Ditka, Johnson, the on-site team was Scott, Young, and Matt Millen in the third spot. On September 17,2012, Monday Night Countdown moved up to the 6,30 ET timeslot, as a result, SportsCenter Monday Kickoff had its runtime cut in half, from 60 minutes to 30 minutes only. Additionally, Monday Night Countdown debuted a new logo that closely resembles that of Monday Night Football. Also, Monday Night Countdown began using MNFs Heavy Action theme music as this programs own theme music, ray Lewis is added to the on-site team after his retirement from the NFL in 2012. The 49ers defeated the Atlanta Falcons, 34-24, in the MNF season finale and that game was also the 36th and final Monday Night Football game — and the last NFL game — ever played at Candlestick Park. On September 8,2014, Monday Night Countdown moved to a set inside Digital Center 2 of ESPNs Bristol studios. However, the Monday Night Football graphics package is still used, Suzy Kolber, who substituted for the then-ailing Stuart Scott during most of the 2014 season, took over Scotts role permanently as an on-site host

17. Monday Night Football – Monday Night Football is a live television broadcast of weekly National Football League games on ESPN in the United States. From 1970 to 2005, it aired on sister broadcast network ABC, Monday Night Football is also broadcast in Canada on TSN and RDS, and in most of Europe. On September 7,2013, the NFL announced that British Eurosport would show Monday Night Football games live in the United Kingdom for the 2013 and 2014 seasons. A Spanish-language version airs on ESPN Deportes in the U. S. and on ESPN International in Latin America, while a Portuguese version airs on ESPN Brasil. On September 8,2011, the first day of the 2011 regular season, ESPN extended its contract for Monday Night Football for eight additional seasons, giving it rights to the broadcasts until 2021. The new deal, valued between $14.2 billion and $15.2 billion, also gives ESPN rights to expanded highlights, international and streaming rights, after 45 seasons, there now have been a total of 730 games televised by the Monday Night Football franchise. To avoid any scheduling unfairness where, just before the first playoff game, from 2003 to 2005, one game was played on Thursday and another Monday under the Monday Night Football banner. Starting in 2006, when the series moved to cable, two games are played on the opening Monday night to capitalize on fan interest during NFL Kickoff Weekend. Since no one knows during the first month of the if a team is indeed good, or will rebound from a difficult start. Since the MNF schedule is set in April and cannot be changed and it had seemed like a good pre-season matchup since the Falcons had played in the previous seasons Super Bowl and the 49ers coming into the 1999 season had posted 16 consecutive 10-win seasons. It is also possible for a team like the 1999 St. However, many MNF games occurring later in the season feature at least one team that is either headed to the playoffs or must win the MNF game to clinch a playoff spot. As a result of this, the NFL wished to move the Game of the Week idea to Sunday nights as to flex scheduling possible. This was a move which would mean the end of Monday Night Football on ABC. The league currently has no interest in expanding flexible scheduling to include Monday Night Football, citing the logistical issues of moving games back, the franchise with the most Monday night appearances is the Miami Dolphins. The San Francisco 49ers won their record 48th Monday Night game with a 28–0 win over the Los Angeles Rams on September 12,2016, the most common Monday Night Football pairings are Broncos vs. Raiders and Cowboys vs. Redskins. Candlestick Park in San Francisco has hosted the most Monday Night Football games, including its 36th, among the active stadiums following the conclusion of the 2013 season, Sun Life Stadium will have hosted the most games with 32. Monday Night Football has continued to provide as much entertainment as sports throughout its run, in addition to the extra cameras, the program has also pioneered technological broadcast innovations, such as the use of enhanced slow motion replays and computerized graphics. However, the late 1990s and early 2000s saw an even more increased reliance on the entertainment factor

18. Terrell Owens – Terrell Eldorado Owens is a former American football wide receiver. A six-time Pro Bowl selection, Owens holds or shares several National Football League records and his 15,934 career receiving yards rank second in NFL history and his 153 receiving touchdowns rank third. As productive as he has been, Owens has been equally controversial, Owens played college football and basketball at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, and was selected in the third round of the 1996 NFL Draft by the San Francisco 49ers. Owens was traded to the Philadelphia Eagles in 2004 after a spat with 49ers front office members, two years later, he was released and signed to another large pact by the Dallas Cowboys, only to be given his unconditional release on March 4,2009. Owens has also played for the Buffalo Bills and Cincinnati Bengals in 2009 and 2010 and he most recently played for the Allen Wranglers of the Indoor Football League, before being released in 2012. Popularly known by his initials, T. O. Owens is as renowned for his flamboyant touchdown celebrations, Owens was born to LC Russel and Marilyn Heard in Alexander City, Alabama. He grew up with three siblings and was raised by his mother and grandmother. He enjoyed watching football, especially his favorite player, Jerry Rice, however, Owens’ grandmother initially forbade him from playing sports until high school. Owens attended Benjamin Russell High School, where he participated in football, baseball, track, Owens was a late-bloomer and did not start on his high school football team until his junior year when one of his teammates missed a game due to illness. Terrell Owens is the son of Terrell Sr. and Marilyn Heard, Terrell is also the father to daughters Kylee Owens and Dasha Owens, as well as sons Mike Float and Atlin Owens. In September 2011, Owens was sued by Melanie Paige Smith III, the mother of his daughter, for failure to pay child support, but the case was settled prior to trial. Owens insisted that the reason for the child support payments was due to his wages decreasing in the NFL. On a May 8,2012 episode of Dr. Phil, Owens said he was paying some $45,000 per month in child support at one time. While enrolled at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Owens played many sports including basketball, football, Owens played in the 1995 NCAA Basketball Tournament. While playing in college, Owens wore the #80 jersey to honor his idol and he was not a distinguished athlete at first, but managed to make a breakthrough after becoming a starter during his sophomore year. Owens caught 38 passes for 724 yards and eight touchdowns during his sophomore year, having gained respect in the NCAA, Owens faced double coverage more frequently during his senior year, and was limited to 43 receptions for 667 yards and one touchdown. Owens previously held the single season record at Chattanooga until it was broken in 2007 by Alonzo Nix. In his senior year, he anchored the schools 4 ×100 relay team at the NCAA championship and he also participated in the Senior Bowl, a college all-star game played by college seniors, in preparation for the NFL Draft

19. Philadelphia Eagles – The Philadelphia Eagles are a professional American football franchise based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The Eagles compete in the National Football League as a club of the leagues National Football Conference East division. The franchise was established in 1933 as a replacement for the bankrupt Frankford Yellow Jackets, when a group led by Bert Bell secured the rights to an NFL franchise in Philadelphia. Bell, Chuck Bednarik, Bob Brown, Reggie White, Steve Van Buren, Tommy McDonald, Greasy Neale, Pete Pihos, Sonny Jurgensen, the team has an intense rivalry with the New York Giants. This rivalry is the oldest in the NFC East and is among the oldest in the NFL and they also have a historic rivalry with the Washington Redskins, as well as their bitter rivalry with the Dallas Cowboys, which has become more high-profile in the last three decades. The team consistently ranks in the top three in attendance and has sold out every game since the 1999 season, in a Sports Illustrated poll of 321 NFL players, Eagles fans were selected the most intimidating fans in the NFL. Midway through the 1931 season, the Frankford Yellow Jackets went bankrupt, the Bell-Wray group had to pay an entry fee of $3,500 and assumed a total debt of $11,000 that was owed to three other NFL franchises. Neither the Eagles nor the NFL officially regard the two franchises as the same, citing the period of dormancy. Furthermore, almost no Yellow Jackets players were on the Eagles first roster, the Eagles, along with the Pittsburgh Steelers and the now-defunct Cincinnati Reds, joined the NFL as expansion teams. To accommodate football at Shibe Park during the winter, management set up stands in right field, some 20 feet high, these east stands had 22 rows of seats. The goalposts stood along the first base line and in left field, the uncovered east stands enlarged capacity of Shibe Park to over 39,000, but the Eagles rarely drew more than 25 to 30,000. The Eagles struggled over the course of their first decade, enduring repeated losing seasons, soon after, Bell and Rooney traded the Eagles franchise to Thompson and moved it to Pittsburgh, while Thompson moved the Steelers franchise to Philadelphia. By the late 1940s, head coach Earle Greasy Neale and running back Steve Van Buren led the team to three consecutive NFL Championship Games, winning two of them in 1948 and 1949. After the 1957 season, the Eagles moved from Connie Mack Stadium to Franklin Field at the University of Pennsylvania, Franklin Field would seat over 60,000 for the Eagles, whereas Connie Mack had a capacity of 39,000. The stadium switched from grass to AstroTurf in 1969 and it was the first NFL stadium to use artificial turf. In 1960, the Eagles won their third NFL championship, under the leadership of future Pro Football Hall of Famers Norm Van Brocklin and Chuck Bednarik, the head coach was Buck Shaw. The 1960 Eagles, by a score of 17–13, became the team to defeat Vince Lombardi. The Eagles had a good 1961 season and then fell on hard times in 1962

20. Amazon (company) – Amazon. com, also called Amazon, is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company that was founded on July 5,1994, by Jeff Bezos and is based in Seattle, Washington. It is the largest Internet-based retailer in the world by total sales, the company also produces consumer electronics—notably, Kindle e-readers, Fire tablets, Fire TV, and Echo—and is the worlds largest provider of cloud infrastructure services. Amazon also sells certain low-end products like USB cables under its in-house brand AmazonBasics. Amazon has separate retail websites for the United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Canada, Germany, Italy, Spain, Netherlands, Australia, Brazil, Japan, China, India, and Mexico. Amazon also offers international shipping to other countries for some of its products. In 2016, Dutch, Polish, and Turkish language versions of the German Amazon website were launched. In 2015, Amazon surpassed Walmart as the most valuable retailer in the United States by market capitalization, in 1994, Bezos left his employment as vice-president of D. E. Shaw & Co. a Wall Street firm and moved to Seattle. He began to work on a plan for what would eventually become Amazon. com. Bezos incorporated the company as Cadabra on July 5,1994, Bezos changed the name to Amazon a year later after a lawyer misheard its original name as cadaver. In September 1994, Bezos purchased the URL Relentless. com and briefly considered naming his online store Relentless, the domain is still owned by Bezos and still redirects to the retailer. The company went online as Amazon. com in 1995, Bezos placed a premium on his head start in building a brand, telling a reporter, Theres nothing about our model that cant be copied over time. But you know, McDonalds got copied, and it still built a huge, multibillion-dollar company. A lot of it comes down to the brand name, brand names are more important online than they are in the physical world. Additionally, a beginning with A was preferential due to the probability it would occur at the top of any list that was alphabetized. Since June 19,2000, Amazons logotype has featured a curved arrow leading from A to Z, representing that the company carries every product from A to Z, with the arrow shaped like a smile. After reading a report about the future of the Internet that projected annual Web commerce growth at 2, 300% and he narrowed the list to what he felt were the five most promising products, which included, compact discs, computer hardware, computer software, videos and books. Amazon was founded in the garage of Bezos home in Bellevue, the company began as an online bookstore, an idea spurred off with discussion with John Ingram of Ingram Book, along with Keyur Patel who still holds a stake in Amazon. Amazon was able to access books at wholesale from Ingram, in the first two months of business, Amazon sold to all 50 states and over 45 countries

21. Frederick Jackson Turner – For other people of this same name, see Frederick Jackson and Frederick Turner. Frederick Jackson Turner was an American historian in the early 20th century, based at the University of Wisconsin until 1910 and he trained many PhDs who came to occupy prominent places in the history profession. He promoted interdisciplinary and quantitative methods, often with a focus on the Midwest and he is best known for his essay The Significance of the Frontier in American History, whose ideas formed the Frontier Thesis. He argued that the western frontier shaped American democracy and the American character from the colonial era until 1890. He is also known for his theories of geographical sectionalism, in recent years historians and academics have argued strenuously over Turners work, all agree that the Frontier Thesis has had an enormous impact on historical scholarship and the American mind. Born in Portage, Wisconsin, the son of Andrew Jackson Turner and his father was active in Republican politics, an investor in the railroad, and was a newspaper editor and publisher. He graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1884, where he was a member of Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity, as a professor of history at Wisconsin, and later Harvard, Turner trained scores of students, who in turn dominated American history programs throughout the country. Turner did not publish extensively, his influence came from tersely expressed interpretive theories, two theories in particular were influential, the Frontier Thesis and the Sectional Hypothesis. He proved adept at promoting his ideas and his students, whom he placed in leading universities, including Merle Curti. His emphasis on the importance of the frontier in shaping American character influenced the interpretation found in thousands of scholarly histories, by the time Turner died in 1932, 60% of the leading history departments in the U. S. were teaching courses in frontier history along Turnerian lines. Annoyed by the university regents who demanded less research and more teaching and state service, declining offers from California, he accepted a call to Harvard in 1910 and remained a professor there until 1922, being succeeded in 1924 by Arthur M. Schlesinger, Sr. In 1911 he was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and his The Frontier in American History was a collection of older essays. As a professor of history at Wisconsin and Harvard, Turner trained scores of disciples who in turn dominated American history programs throughout the country and his emphasis on the importance of the frontier in shaping American character influenced the interpretation found in thousands of scholarly histories. At the American Historical Association, he collaborated with J. Franklin Jameson on numerous major projects, Turners theories slipped out of fashion in the 1960s, as critics complained that he neglected regionalism. They complained that he celebrated too much the egalitarianism and democracy of a frontier that was rough on women and his ideas never disappeared, indeed they influenced the new field of environmental history. Turner gave an impetus to quantitative methods, and scholars using new statistical techniques and data sets have, for example. He believed the spirit and success of the United States was directly tied to the westward expansion. Turner expounded an evolutionary model, he had been influenced by work with geologists at Wisconsin, the West, not the East, was where distinctively American characteristics emerged

22. Color barrier

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