Rapid growth of the city has led to a housing shortage. Most of the rural migrants begin their life in Rio in shanty towns called 'favelas'. 19 per cent of the population live in around 600 of these shanty towns. They are found mainly on the edges of the city, on poor quality land that is not suitable for urban development. People here are squatters, with no legal rights to the land they occupy. They live in overcrowded conditions, often in home-made shelters constructed from scavenged materials like timber, tarpaulins and corrugated iron.
The shanty towns have grown spontaneously with no planning, and so have no proper roads, pavements or local services like hospitals. The largest shanty town is called Rocinha, in the south of the city - overlooking the beaches and main tourist hotels.
With the country undergoing rapid development, car ownership has grown and the central business district is very congested with high levels of air pollution. Mountains hem in the city on the coastline, so traffic is confined to a limited number of routes. Buses and trams provide public transport for the residents, and the city has two subway lines. Roads in the favela areas are often just dirt tracks, and most people living here walk to their destinations.
There are few schools in the favelas.
There is a shortage of hospitals and clinics in the favelas, and high levels of illness and disease prevail here.
High levels of crime, violence and drug abuse blight many of the favelas. Street crime is a problem in the tourist areas, although pacification has recently started to improve crime rates.
Sustainable strategies to improve the quality of life in the favelas
In the 1990s, the Favela Bairro Project was set up to help improve life in the favelas and upgrade them rather than demolish them, as has happened in other locations. This work has been carried out with government funding to provide facilities like electricity, sewage systems, rubbish collection and public transport.
Construction of a dwelling in the favela of Rocinha
- Self-help schemes have also been supported. Here, local residents are provided with building materials like concrete blocks and cement in order to replace home-made shelters with permanent dwellings. These are often three or four storeys high, and with water, electricity and sewage systems installed.
- Legal rights such as granting the favela residents rights to own their own properties. Low rents have also been offered.
- Transport systems have been extended to include the favelas to give residents the opportunity to travel to work in the city centre and industrial areas.
- Law and order has been improved in the favelas by trying to rid these areas of crime and drug abuse. Several large favelas have been improved in this way through federal 'Pacification Programmes'.
- New towns like Barra da Tijuca, built 20 kilometres along the coastline, have been built to relocate some residents from city favelas.
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AQA ICT INFO3: Investigating Case Studies
Fully-resourced teaching framework helps you deliver INFO3 as it was intended. Packed with teaching guidance, practical tasks and exam practice throughout. Written by David J Astall, an experienced teacher and author.
Teacher GuideIncludes expert guidance on:
- How to prepare your students for the AQA case study
- How you can use real-life case studies to enrich your students learning
- Uses up-to-date, relevant case studies on the London Olympics and cloud computing
- How to create your own case studies to teach different parts of the specification
- Information sheets and practical tasks develop the vital analytical skills needed to unravel any case study
- Varied exam-style questions provide a wealth of INFO3 exam practice
- Includes full exemplar solutions and examiner commentary for all student tasks
AQA ICT INFO3: Investigating Case Studies
Teacher and student guides (a total of 65 A4 pages)
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