Robert Atwan, the founder of The Best American Essays series, picks the 10 best essays of the postwar period. Links to the essays are provided when available.
Fortunately, when I worked with Joyce Carol Oates on The Best American Essays of the Century (that’s the last century, by the way), we weren’t restricted to ten selections. So to make my list of the top ten essays since 1950 less impossible, I decided to exclude all the great examples of New Journalism--Tom Wolfe, Gay Talese, Michael Herr, and many others can be reserved for another list. I also decided to include only American writers, so such outstanding English-language essayists as Chris Arthur and Tim Robinson are missing, though they have appeared in The Best American Essays series. And I selected essays, not essayists. A list of the top ten essayists since 1950 would feature some different writers.
To my mind, the best essays are deeply personal (that doesn’t necessarily mean autobiographical) and deeply engaged with issues and ideas. And the best essays show that the name of the genre is also a verb, so they demonstrate a mind in process--reflecting, trying-out, essaying.
James Baldwin, "Notes of a Native Son" (originally appeared in Harper’s, 1955)
“I had never thought of myself as an essayist,” wrote James Baldwin, who was finishing his novel Giovanni’s Room while he worked on what would become one of the great American essays. Against a violent historical background, Baldwin recalls his deeply troubled relationship with his father and explores his growing awareness of himself as a black American. Some today may question the relevance of the essay in our brave new “post-racial” world, though Baldwin considered the essay still relevant in 1984 and, had he lived to see it, the election of Barak Obama may not have changed his mind. However you view the racial politics, the prose is undeniably hypnotic, beautifully modulated and yet full of urgency. Langston Hughes nailed it when he described Baldwin’s “illuminating intensity.” The essay was collected in Notes of a Native Son courageously (at the time) published by Beacon Press in 1955.
Norman Mailer, "The White Negro" (originally appeared in Dissent, 1957)
An essay that packed an enormous wallop at the time may make some of us cringe today with its hyperbolic dialectics and hyperventilated metaphysics. But Mailer’s attempt to define the “hipster”–in what reads in part like a prose version of Ginsberg’s “Howl”–is suddenly relevant again, as new essays keep appearing with a similar definitional purpose, though no one would mistake Mailer’s hipster (“a philosophical psychopath”) for the ones we now find in Mailer’s old Brooklyn neighborhoods. Odd, how terms can bounce back into life with an entirely different set of connotations. What might Mailer call the new hipsters? Squares?
Read the essay here.
Susan Sontag, "Notes on 'Camp'" (originally appeared in Partisan Review, 1964)
Like Mailer’s “White Negro,” Sontag’s groundbreaking essay was an ambitious attempt to define a modern sensibility, in this case “camp,” a word that was then almost exclusively associated with the gay world. I was familiar with it as an undergraduate, hearing it used often by a set of friends, department store window decorators in Manhattan. Before I heard Sontag—thirty-one, glamorous, dressed entirely in black-- read the essay on publication at a Partisan Review gathering, I had simply interpreted “campy” as an exaggerated style or over-the-top behavior. But after Sontag unpacked the concept, with the help of Oscar Wilde, I began to see the cultural world in a different light. “The whole point of camp,” she writes, “is to dethrone the serious.” Her essay, collected in Against Interpretation (1966), is not in itself an example of camp.
Read the essay here.
John McPhee, "The Search for Marvin Gardens" (originally appeared in The New Yorker, 1972)
“Go. I roll the dice—a six and a two. Through the air I move my token, the flatiron, to Vermont Avenue, where dog packs range.” And so we move, in this brilliantly conceived essay, from a series of Monopoly games to a decaying Atlantic City, the once renowned resort town that inspired America’s most popular board game. As the games progress and as properties are rapidly snapped up, McPhee juxtaposes the well-known sites on the board—Atlantic Avenue, Park Place—with actual visits to their crumbling locations. He goes to jail, not just in the game but in fact, portraying what life has now become in a city that in better days was a Boardwalk Empire. At essay’s end, he finds the elusive Marvin Gardens. The essay was collected in Pieces of the Frame (1975).
Read the essay here (subscription required).
Joan Didion, "The White Album" (originally appeared in New West, 1979)
Huey Newton, Eldridge Cleaver, and the Black Panthers, a recording session with Jim Morrison and the Doors, the San Francisco State riots, the Manson murders—all of these, and much more, figure prominently in Didion’s brilliant mosaic distillation (or phantasmagoric album) of California life in the late 1960s. Yet despite a cast of characters larger than most Hollywood epics, “The White Album” is a highly personal essay, right down to Didion’s report of her psychiatric tests as an outpatient in a Santa Monica hospital in the summer of 1968. “We tell ourselves stories in order to live,” the essay famously begins, and as it progresses nervously through cuts and flashes of reportage, with transcripts, interviews, and testimonies, we realize that all of our stories are questionable, “the imposition of a narrative line upon disparate images.” Portions of the essay appeared in installments in 1968-69 but it wasn’t until 1979 that Didion published the complete essay in New West magazine; it then became the lead essay of her book, The White Album (1979).
Annie Dillard, "Total Eclipse" (originally appeared in Antaeus, 1982)
In her introduction to The Best American Essays 1988, Annie Dillard claims that “The essay can do everything a poem can do, and everything a short story can do—everything but fake it.” Her essay “Total Eclipse” easily makes her case for the imaginative power of a genre that is still undervalued as a branch of imaginative literature. “Total Eclipse” has it all—the climactic intensity of short fiction, the interwoven imagery of poetry, and the meditative dynamics of the personal essay: “This was the universe about which we have read so much and never before felt: the universe as a clockwork of loose spheres flung at stupefying, unauthorized speeds.” The essay, which first appeared in Antaeus in 1982 was collected in Teaching a Stone to Talk (1982), a slim volume that ranks among the best essay collections of the past fifty years.
Phillip Lopate, "Against Joie de Vivre" (originally appeared in Ploughshares, 1986)
This is an essay that made me glad I’d started The Best American Essays the year before. I’d been looking for essays that grew out of a vibrant Montaignean spirit—personal essays that were witty, conversational, reflective, confessional, and yet always about something worth discussing. And here was exactly what I’d been looking for. I might have found such writing several decades earlier but in the 80s it was relatively rare; Lopate had found a creative way to insert the old familiar essay into the contemporary world: “Over the years,” Lopate begins, “I have developed a distaste for the spectacle of joie de vivre, the knack of knowing how to live.” He goes on to dissect in comic yet astute detail the rituals of the modern dinner party. The essay was selected by Gay Talese for The Best American Essays 1987 and collected in Against Joie de Vivre in 1989.
Read the essay here.
Edward Hoagland, "Heaven and Nature" (originally appeared in Harper’s, 1988)
“The best essayist of my generation,” is how John Updike described Edward Hoagland, who must be one of the most prolific essayists of our time as well. “Essays,” Hoagland wrote, “are how we speak to one another in print—caroming thoughts not merely in order to convey a certain packet of information, but with a special edge or bounce of personal character in a kind of public letter.” I could easily have selected many other Hoagland essays for this list (such as “The Courage of Turtles”), but I’m especially fond of “Heaven and Nature,” which shows Hoagland at his best, balancing the public and private, the well-crafted general observation with the clinching vivid example. The essay, selected by Geoffrey Wolff for The Best American Essays 1989 and collected in Heart’s Desire (1988), is an unforgettable meditation not so much on suicide as on how we remarkably manage to stay alive.
Jo Ann Beard, "The Fourth State of Matter" (originally appeared in The New Yorker, 1996)
A question for nonfiction writing students: When writing a true story based on actual events, how does the narrator create dramatic tension when most readers can be expected to know what happens in the end? To see how skillfully this can be done turn to Jo Ann Beard’s astonishing personal story about a graduate student’s murderous rampage on the University of Iowa campus in 1991. “Plasma is the fourth state of matter,” writes Beard, who worked in the U of I’s physics department at the time of the incident, “You’ve got your solid, your liquid, your gas, and there’s your plasma. In outer space there’s the plasmasphere and the plasmapause.” Besides plasma, in this emotion-packed essay you will find entangled in all the tension a lovable, dying collie, invasive squirrels, an estranged husband, the seriously disturbed gunman, and his victims, one of them among the author’s dearest friends. Selected by Ian Frazier for The Best American Essays 1997, the essay was collected in Beard’s award-winning volume, The Boys of My Youth (1998).
Read the essay here.
David Foster Wallace, "Consider the Lobster" (originally appeared in Gourmet, 2004)
They may at first look like magazine articles—those factually-driven, expansive pieces on the Illinois State Fair, a luxury cruise ship, the adult video awards, or John McCain’s 2000 presidential campaign—but once you uncover the disguise and get inside them you are in the midst of essayistic genius. One of David Foster Wallace’s shortest and most essayistic is his “coverage” of the annual Maine Lobster Festival, “Consider the Lobster.” The Festival becomes much more than an occasion to observe “the World’s Largest Lobster Cooker” in action as Wallace poses an uncomfortable question to readers of the upscale food magazine: “Is it all right to boil a sentient creature alive just for our gustatory pleasure?” Don’t gloss over the footnotes. Susan Orlean selected the essay for The Best American Essays 2004 and Wallace collected it in Consider the Lobster and Other Essays (2005).
Read the essay here. (Note: the electronic version from Gourmet magazine’s archives differs from the essay that appears in The Best American Essays and in his book, Consider the Lobster.)
I wish I could include twenty more essays but these ten in themselves comprise a wonderful and wide-ranging mini-anthology, one that showcases some of the most outstanding literary voices of our time. Readers who’d like to see more of the best essays since 1950 should take a look at The Best American Essays of the Century (2000).
A list of famous people, chosen mainly from the nineteenth, twentieth or twenty-first centuries. This list includes famous actors, politicians, entrepreneurs, writers, artists and humanitarians.
- Marilyn Monroe (1926 – 1962) American actress, singer, model
- Abraham Lincoln (1809 – 1865) US President during American civil war
- Mother Teresa (1910 – 1997) Macedonian Catholic missionary nun
- John F. Kennedy (1917 – 1963) US President 1961 – 1963
- Martin Luther King (1929 – 1968) American civil rights campaigner
- Nelson Mandela (1918 – 2013) South African President anti-apartheid campaigner
- Queen Elizabeth II (1926 – ) British monarch since 1954
- Winston Churchill (1874 – 1965) British Prime Minister during WWII
- Donald Trump (1946 – ) Businessman, politician
- Bill Gates (1955 – ) American businessman, founder of Microsoft
- Muhammad Ali (1942 – 2016) American Boxer and civil rights campaigner
- Mahatma Gandhi (1869 – 1948) Leader of Indian independence movement
- Margaret Thatcher (1925 – 2013) British Prime Minister 1979 – 1990
- Christopher Columbus (1451 – 1506) Italian explorer
- Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882) British scientist, theory of evolution
- Elvis Presley (1935 – 1977) American musician
- Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955) German scientist, theory of relativity
- Paul McCartney (1942 – ) British musician, member of Beatles
- Queen Victoria ( 1819 – 1901) British monarch 1837 – 1901
- Pope Francis (1936 – ) First pope from the Americas
- Jawaharlal Nehru (1889 – 1964) Indian Prime Minister 1947 – 1964
- Leonardo da Vinci (1452 – 1519) Italian, painter, scientist, polymath
- Vincent Van Gogh (1853 – 1890) Dutch artist
- Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882 – 1945) US President 1932 – 1945
- Pope John Paul II (1920 – 2005) Polish Pope
- Thomas Edison ( 1847 – 1931) American inventor
- Rosa Parks (1913 – 2005) American civil rights activist
- Aung San Suu Kyi (1945 – ) Burmese opposition leader
- Lyndon Johnson (1908 – 1973) US President 1963 – 1969
- Ludwig Beethoven (1770 – 1827) German composer
- Oprah Winfrey (1954 – ) American TV presenter, actress, entrepreneur
- Indira Gandhi (1917 – 1984) Prime Minister of India 1966 – 1977
- Eva Peron (1919 – 1952) First Lady of Argentina 1946 – 1952
- Benazir Bhutto (1953 – 2007) Prime Minister of Pakistan 1993 – 1996
- George Orwell (1903 – 1950) British author
- Desmond Tutu (1931 – ) South African Bishop and opponent of apartheid
- Dalai Lama (1938 – ) Spiritual and political leader of Tibetans
- Walt Disney (1901 – 1966) American film producer
- Neil Armstrong (1930 – 2012) US astronaut
- Peter Sellers (1925 – 1980) British actor and comedian
- Barack Obama (1961 – ) US President 2008 – 2016
- Malcolm X (1925 – 1965) American Black nationalist leader
- J.K.Rowling (1965 – ) British author
- Richard Branson (1950 – ) British entrepreneur
- Pele (1940 – ) Brazilian footballer, considered greatest of 20th century.
- Angelina Jolie (1975 – ) Actress, director, humanitarian
- Jesse Owens (1913 – 1980) US track athlete, 1936 Olympics
- Ernest Hemingway (1899 – 1961) American author
- John Lennon (1940 – 1980) British musician, member of the Beatles
- Henry Ford (1863 – 1947) US Industrialist
- Haile Selassie (1892 – 1975) Emperor of Ethiopia 1930 – 1974
- Joseph Stalin (1879 – 1953) Leader of Soviet Union 1924 – 1953
- Lord Baden Powell (1857 – 1941) British Founder of scout movement
- Michael Jordon (1963 – ) US Basketball star
- George Bush Jnr (1946 – ) US President 2000-2008
- Vladimir Lenin (1870 – 1924) Leader of Russian Revolution 1917
- Ingrid Bergman (1915 – 1982) Swedish actress
- Fidel Castro (1926 – ) President of Cuba 1976 – 2008
- Leo Tolstoy (1828 – 1910) Russian author and philosopher
- Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973) Spanish modern artist
- Oscar Wilde (1854 – 1900) Irish author, poet, playwright
- Coco Chanel (1883 – 1971) French fashion designer
- Charles de Gaulle (1890 – 1970) French resistance leader and President 1959 – 1969
- Amelia Earhart (1897 – 1937) Aviator
- John M Keynes (1883 – 1946) British economist
- Louis Pasteur (1822 – 1895) French chemist and microbiologist
- Mikhail Gorbachev (1931 – ) Leader of Soviet Union 1985 – 1991
- Plato (423 BC – 348 BC) Greek philosopher
- Adolf Hitler (1889 – 1945) leader of Nazi Germany 1933 – 1945
- Sting (1951 – ) British musician
- Mary Magdalene (4 BCE – 40CE) devotee of Jesus Christ
- Alfred Hitchcock (1899 – 1980) English / American film producer, director
- Michael Jackson (1958 – 2009) American musician
- Madonna (1958 – ) American musician, actress, author
- Mata Hari (1876 – 1917) Dutch exotic dancer, executed as spy
- Cleopatra (69 – 30 BCE) Queen of Egypt
- Grace Kelly (1929 – 1982) American actress, Princess of Monaco
- Steve Jobs (1955 – 2012) co-founder of Apple computers
- Ronald Reagan (1911 – 2004) US President 1981-1989
- Lionel Messi (1987 – ) Argentinian footballer
- Babe Ruth (1895 – 1948) American baseball player
- Bob Geldof (1951 – ) Irish musician, charity worker
- Leon Trotsky (1879 – 1940) Russian Marxist revolutionary
- Roger Federer (1981 – ) Swiss Tennis player
- Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) Austrian psychoanalyst
- Woodrow Wilson (1856 – 1924) US president 1913 – 1921
- Mao Zedong (1893 – 1976) Leader of Chinese Communist revolution
- Katherine Hepburn (1907 – 2003) American actress
- Audrey Hepburn (1929 – 1993) British actress and humanitarian
- David Beckham (1975 – ) English footballer
- Tiger Woods (1975 – ) American golfer
- Usain Bolt (1986 – ) Jamaican athlete and Olympian
- Carl Lewis (1961 – ) US athlete and Olympian
- Prince Charles (1948 – ) Heir to British throne
- Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis (1929 – 1994) American wife of JF Kennedy
- C.S. Lewis (1898 – 1963) British author
- Billie Holiday (1915 – 1959) American jazz singer
- J.R.R. Tolkien (1892 – 1973) British author
- Billie Jean King (1943 – ) American tennis player and human rights activist
- Anne Frank (1929 – 1945) Dutch Jewish author who died in Holocaust
More famous people
- Simon Bolivar (1783 – 1830) Venezuelan independence activist in South America.
- Marie Antoinette (1755 – 1793) French Queen, executed during the French revolution
- Cristiano Ronaldo (1985 – ) Portuguese footballer.
- Emmeline Pankhurst (1858 – 1928) English suffragette.
- Emile Zatopek (1922 – 2000) Czech athlete
- Lech Walesa (1943 – ) Polish leader of Solidarity movement
- Julie Andrews (1935 – ) British singer, actress
- Florence Nightingale (1820 – 1910) British nurse
- Marie Curie (1867 – 1934) Polish / French scientist
- Stephen Hawking (1942 – ) British scientist
- Tim Berners Lee (1955 – ) English creator of World Wide Web
- Lance Armstrong (1971 – ) American cyclist
- Shakira (1977 – ) Colombian singer
- Jon Stewart (1962 – ) American comedian
- Wright Brothers Orville (1871 – 1948) and Wilbur (1867 – 1912) American inventors, aviation pioneers
- Roman Abramovich (1966 – ) Russian oligarch
- Tom Cruise (1962 – ) American actor
- Rupert Murdoch (1931 – ) Media owner of News Corporation
- Al Gore (1948 – ) US presidential candidate and environmental campaigner
- Sacha Baron Cohen (1971 – ) English comedian
- George Clooney (1961 – ) American actor and political activist
- Paul Krugman (1953 – ) American Nobel Prize winning economist
- Jimmy Wales (1966 – ) American creator of Wikipedia
- Brad Pitt (1963 – ) Actor
- Kylie Minogue (1968 – ) Australian singer and actress
- Malala Yousafzai (1997 – ) Pakistani human rights activist
- Stephen King (1947 – ) American author
More Famous people
Famous historical figures: A list of famous people throughout the ages, which includes people from ancient civilisations to the present.
100 Famous Women: A list of 100 famous women from the arts, sport, literature, acting and politics.
100 most influential people – A list of 100 most influential people as chosen by Michael H. Hast, from his book 100 most influential people in the world. Includes; Muhammad, Jesus Christ, Lord Buddha, Confucius, St Paul and Johann Gutenberg.
People who changed the world – Famous people who changed the course of history including Socrates, Newton, Jesus Christ, Muhammad, Queen Victoria, Catherine the Great, Einstein and Gandhi.
Women who changed the world – Famous women who changed the world. Features female Prime Ministers, scientists, cultural figures, authors and royalty. Includes; Cleopatra, Princess Diana, Marie Curie, Queen Victoria, and Joan of Arc.
Famous People Through History
Famous by Nationality
Citation: Pettinger, Tejvan. “Top 100 Famous People”, Oxford, UK. www.biographyonline.net, 31/01/2016. Last updated 28 Feb 2018.
1000 Years of Famous People at Amazon