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Sustainable Consumption And Production Essay Writing

Goal n.12 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development aims to ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns. Paragraph 28 of the 2030 Agenda reads: �We (Countries) commit to making fundamental changes in the way that our societies produce and consume goods and services. Governments, international organizations, the business sector and other non-state actors and individuals must contribute to changing unsustainable consumption and production patterns, including through the mobilization, from all sources, of financial and technical assistance to strengthen developing countries� scientific, technological and innovative capacities to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production. We encourage the implementation of the 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production. All countries take action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries�. As defined by the Oslo Symposium in 1994, sustainable consumption and production (SCP) is about "the use of services and related products, which respond to basic needs and bring a better quality of life while minimizing the use of natural resources and toxic materials as well as the emissions of waste and pollutants over the life cycle of the service or product so as not to jeopardize the needs of further generations�. The concept of sustainable consumption and production was later recognized in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, adopted in 2002 at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD). On that occasion, sustainable consumption and production was identified as one of the three overarching objectives of, and essential requirements for, sustainable development, together with poverty eradication and the management of natural resources in order to foster economic and social development. It was acknowledged that fundamental changes in the way societies produce and consume are indispensable for achieving global sustainable development. The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation also called for all countries to promote sustainable consumption and production patterns, with the developed countries taking the lead and with all countries benefiting from the process, taking into account the Rio principles, including, inter alia, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities as set out in Principle 7 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. Furthermore, the Plan called in its Chapter 3 �Changing unsustainable patterns of consumption and production� for governments, relevant international organizations, the private sector and all major groups to play an active role in changing unsustainable consumption and production patterns and more specifically,through its Paragraph 15, to "Encourage and promote the development of a 10-year framework of programmes (10YFP) in support of regional and national initiatives to accelerate the shift towards sustainable consumption and production to promote social and economic development within the carrying capacity of ecosystems". The 10- year framework of programme (10YFP) on sustainable consumption and production patterns was adopted at the Rio+20 Conference, through Paragraph 226. UNEP has been requested to serve as the 10YFP Secretariat and to establish and administer a Trust Fund to support SCP implementation in developing countries and countries with economies in transition. (A/C.2/67/L.45). The Inter-Agency Coordination Group (IACG) of the 10YFP was established in May 2013, with the participation of 19 United Nations bodies. It is permanently chaired by UNEP and co-chaired for the period 2013-2015 by the Department of Economic and Social Affairs. The Coordination Group has been providing inputs for the development of the 10-year framework programmes and prepared a document on �SCP in the SDG [Sustainable Development Goals] Focus Areas�, which was issued in June 2014. The main areas of actions of the Inter-Agency Coordination Group include enhancing visibility within the UN and the raising awareness outside the UN, enhancing coherent inter-agency support for the implementation of the programmes, conducting joint research as well as promoting information exchange and responding to the 10YFP Board.
Sustainable consumption and production
Three years after the adoption of the 10YFP at Rio, the First Global Meeting of the 10YFP was held at the UN Headquarters in May 2015.

The event consisted of a Global Stakeholder Meeting of the 10YFP and of the Implementation and and Inter-linking 10YFP Programmes. More
SDG 12 aims at ensuring sustainable consumption and production patterns.

In particular, its targets focus on the implementation of the 10-year framework of programme, the achievement of sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources as well as halving per capita global food waste.

Other targets are concentrated on encouraging companies to adopt sustainable practices and integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle as well as monitor sustainable development impacts and rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies. More
Through paragraph 224, Member States take the opportunity to "recall the commitments made in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation on sustainable consumption and production and, in particular, the request in chapter 3 of the Plan of Implementation to encourage and promote the development of a 10-year framework of programmes".

Within the same paragraph, Member States also acknowledge that fundamental changes occurred "in the way societies consume and produce are indispensable for achieving global sustainable development".

Paragraph 225 reaffirms the commitment "to phase out harmful and inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption and undermine sustainable development" and invite others "to consider rationalizing inefficient fossil fuel subsidies".

With paragraph 226, Member States "adopt the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production patterns, as contained in document A/CONF.216/5, and highlight that the programmes included in the 10-year framework are voluntary". More
The Marrakech Process is a global multi-stakeholder process to support the implementation of SCP and develop the 10-Year Framework of Programmes on SCP (10YFP).

The Process responds to the call of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation to support the regional and national initiatives to accelerate the shift towards SCP patterns, thus de-linking economic growth from environmental degradation.

UNEP and UN DESA are the leading agencies of this global process, with an active participation of national governments, development agencies, business and industry, civil society and other stakeholders.

The first meeting devoted to developing the10 YFP took place in Marrakech, Morocco in June 2003, hence the name.
More
In the JPOI, Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) are recognized as an overarching objective and an essential requirement for sustainable development.

Therefore, the JPOI calls on all stakeholders to "Encourage and promote the development of a 10-year framework of programmes (10YFP) in support of regional and national initiatives to accelerate the shift towards sustainable consumption and production to promote social and economic development within the carrying capacity of ecosystems".
More
Sustainable consumption was defined at the 1994 Oslo Symposium on Sustainable Consumption as:

�the use of services and related products which respond to basic needs and bring a better quality of life while minimizing the use of natural resources and toxic materials as well as emissions of waste and pollutants over the life cycle of the service or product so as not to jeopardize the needs of future generations�.

There are five central concepts in the Oslo Symposium definition:

� satisfying basic human needs (not the desire for �wants� and luxuries);

� privileging quality of life concerns over material standards of living;

� minimizing resource use, waste and pollution;

� taking a life-cycle approach; and � acting with concern for future generations. More
Chapter 4 contains two programmes areas respectively focusing on unsustainable patterns of production and consumption and on developing national policies and strategies to encourage changes in unsustainable consumption patterns. More
Division for Sustainable Development, UN-DESA

Sustainable consumption (SC) shares a number of common features with and is closely linked to the terms sustainable production and sustainable development. Sustainable consumption as part of sustainable development is a prerequisite in the worldwide struggle against sustainability challenges such as climate change, famines or environmental pollution.

Sustainable development as well as sustainable consumption rely on certain premises such as:

  • Effective use of resources, and minimisation of waste and pollution
  • Use of renewable resources within their capacity for renewal
  • Fuller product life-cycles
  • Intergenerational and intragenerational equity

The Oslo definition[edit]

The definition proposed by the 1994 Oslo Symposium on Sustainable Consumption defines it as "the use of services and related products which respond to basic needs and bring a better quality of life while minimizing the use of natural resources and toxic materials as well as emissions of waste and pollutants over the life cycle of the service or product so as not to jeopardize the needs of future generations."[1]

Strong and weak sustainable consumption[edit]

In order to achieve sustainable consumption, two developments have to take place: it requires both an increase in the efficiency of consumption as well as a change in consumption patterns and reductions in consumption levels in industrialized countries. The first prerequisite is not sufficient on its own and can be named weak sustainable consumption. Here, technological improvements and eco-efficiency support a necessary reduction in resource consumption. Once this aim has been met, the second prerequisite, the change in patterns and reduction of levels of consumption is indispensable. Strong sustainable consumption approaches also pay attention to the social dimension of well-being and assess the need for changes based on a risk-averse perspective.[2] In order to achieve what can be termed strong sustainable consumption, changes in infrastructures as well as the choices customers have are required. In the political arena, weak sustainable consumption has been discussed whereas strong sustainable consumption is missing from all debates.[3]

The so-called attitude-behaviour or values-action gap describes a significant obstacle to changes in individual customer behavior. Many consumers are well aware of the importance of their consumption choices and care about environmental issues, however, most of them do not translate their concerns into their consumption patterns as the purchase-decision making process is highly complicated and relies on e.g. social, political and psychological factors. Young et al. identified a lack of time for research, high prices, a lack of information and the cognitive effort needed as the main barriers when it comes to green consumption choices.[4]

Notable conferences and programs[edit]

  • 1992 - At the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) the concept of sustainable consumption was established in chapter 4 of the Agenda 21.[5]
  • 1994 - Sustainable Consumption Symposium in Oslo
  • 1995 – SC was requested to be incorporated by UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) into the UN Guidelines on Consumer Protection.
  • 1997 – A major report on SC was produced by the OECD.[6]
  • 1998 – United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) started a SC program and SC is discussed in the Human Development Report of the UN Development Program (UNDP).[7]
  • 2002 – A ten-year program on sustainable consumption and production (SCP) was created in the Plan of Implementation at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg.[8]
  • 2003 - The "Marrakech Process" was developed by co-ordination of a series of meetings and other "multi-stakeholder" processes by UNEP and UNDESA following the WSSD.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Source: Norwegian Ministry of the Environment (1994) Oslo Roundtable on Sustainable Production and Consumption.
  2. ^Lorek, Sylvia; Fuchs, Doris (2013). "Strong Sustainable Consumption Governance - Precondition for a Degrowth Path?". Journal of Cleaner Production. 38: 36–43. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2011.08.008. 
  3. ^Fuchs, Doris; Lorek, Sylvia (2005). "Sustainable Consumption Governance: A History of Promises and Failures". Journal of Consumer Policy. 28: 261–288. doi:10.1007/s10603-005-8490-z. 
  4. ^Young, William (2010). "Sustainable Consumption: Green Consumer Behaviour when Purchasing Products". Sustainable Development (18): 20–31. 
  5. ^United Nations. "Agenda 21"(PDF). 
  6. ^Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (1997) Sustainable Consumption and Production, Paris: OECD.
  7. ^United Nations Development Program (UNDP) (1998) Human Development Report, New York: UNDP.
  8. ^United Nations (UN) (2002) Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development. In Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, UN Document A/CONF.199/20*, New York: UN.
  9. ^United Nations Department of Social and Economic Affairs (2010) Paving the Way to Sustainable Consumption and Production. In Marrakech Process Progress Report including Elements for a 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP). [online] Available at: http://www.unep.fr/scp/marrakech/pdf/Marrakech%20Process%20Progress%20Report%20-%20Paving%20the%20Road%20to%20SCP.pdf [Accessed: 6/11/2011].

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