DOI = digital object identifier
- A DOI commonly identifies a journal articlebut it can also be found on other publication types including books.
- All DOIs start with 10. and includes numbers and letters. Example: doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.08.001
- The DOI provides a permanent internet address for the item making it easy to locate.
- You may search by DOI numbers in Library Search or http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.aut.ac.nz to locate articles.
Doi in your reference list entry:
- Always use the DOI if available (for print or online articles and books).
- No full stop at the end of a DOI.
A new citing format for DOI was introduced by APA in March 2017. The new format includes https and the prefix doi.org: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2016.11.001
Oppenheimer, D., Zaromb, F., Pomerantz, J. R., Williams, J. C., & Park, Y. S. (2017). Improvement of writing skills during college: A multi-year cross-sectional and longitudinal study of undergraduate writing performance. Assessing Writing, 32, 12–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2016.11.001
Notes: the following old DOI styles are still acceptable:
If there is no DOI for a online journal article or an e-book, include a URL in your reference.
Use the URL of a journal home page for journal articles without DOI
- Use the URL of the journal homepage, NOT the full URL of the article, in your reference.
Finding a journal homepage URL:
You could do a Google search for the journal title (within double quotation marks), e.g. "new zealand management magazine" to find the journal's homepage
Or, go to the Library database Ulrichsweb, search by the journal title or the journal's ISSN to find the journal record. On the journal record page, find the journal URL for your reference.
Journals without a home page and no DOI:
This can happen to some discontinued journals, or journals archived in an archival database only.
- Use the database home page URL in your reference. See the example in the following section.
Use a URL of a library database:
Resources retrieved from a library database, without a DOI:
If you use electronic resources without DOI, such as an ebook or a data set or a journal without a website, from a library database, You are required to include the URL of the database homepage in your reference.
- Do not use the full URL of the source that you retrieved from a database.
An ebook "Small town sustainability: economic, social,and environmental innovation".
The URL on the ebook page is:
• All documents cited in your assignment must be listed in a single alphabetical list at the end of the assignment.
• The list is arranged by the author's surname, or title if no author is given.
• Only the author's initials are included regardless of the presentation of the author's name in the source document. The given name may be cited in full if it is needed to correctly identify the author, for example, where different authors have the same surname and initials.
• Include the names of all authors unless the authors number eight or more, in this case include the first six authors' names, then insert three ellipses and follow with the final author's name.
• Authors' names are given in the order in which they appear on the source document - do not rearrange the names of the authors of a multi-authored work into alphabetical order.
• Capitalisation practice also should be consistent.
• Titles and subtitles of journal articles, book parts and book titles are given minimal capitalisation. Only the first letter of the first word of the title (and subtitle, if given) and those words that normally have an initial capital (proper nouns) are capitalised.
• Journal titles are given maximal capitalisation. All words other than prepositions, conjunctions, and definite and indefinite articles (a, an, the) are capitalised.
• Journal and book titles are italicised when typed or underlined when handwritten.
• A hanging indent for each reference makes the alphabetical sequence more obvious.