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Coursework On Rates Of Reaction

Rate of Reaction

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Rate of Reaction Coursework

Aim: To investigate how temperature affects rate of reaction.

Introduction: I am going to investigate how temperature affects the
rate of reaction of hydrochloric acid with calcium carbonate.

This is the reaction that will take place:

Hydrochloric acid + Calcium Carbonate è Calcium Carbonate + Water +
Carbon Dioxide

The rate of reaction can be measured in various different ways:

* Using a balance you can check the mass before the reaction and
then after the reaction has taken place. Then check the change in
mass.

* You can also use the method of obscuring a cross with sodium
thiosulphate and time which cross becomes invisible first.

I am going to use a syringe to measure the amount of carbon dioxide
given of at regular intervals. This is because it is accurate as the
smallest division on it is 1ml.

The important variables are:

* Temperature – if it is increased the reaction as the particles
will have more energy.

* Number of calcium carbonate chips – if there are a lot of chips
more carbon dioxide will be formed.

* Amount of acid – if there is more acid the rate of reaction will
be faster.

* Surface area – if the chips have a larger surface area then the
rate of reaction will be faster.

Prediction:

I have chosen to investigate the affect of hydrochloric acid on
calcium carbonate chips. I predict that as the temperature of the acid
increases so will the rate of reaction. This is because for two
substances to react they have to have a successful collision which
means the have to collide with a minimum amount of energy which is
called the activation energy.

This diagram shows how the particles will react with each other with
the minimum amount of energy (activation energy):

The higher the temperature of the acid the faster the acid particles
will be moving around as they’ll have more energy and there will more
collisions. This energy will also allow there to be more successful
collisions and so more carbon dioxide will be formed in smaller amount
of time. Therefore the rate of reaction will be faster.

This diagram shows the reaction of particles with more energy from the
heat:

I can also predict that the shape of my final graph of rate of
reaction and temperature will look like this:

From this graph I can predict that as I increase the temperature by
10°C the rate of reaction will double.

Apparatus: 1 Bunsen burner

Calcium Carbonate chips

Hydrochloric acid

1 Syringe
1 50ml measuring cylinder
1Heatproof mat
1 Wire gauze
1 Conical flask
1 Beaker filled with ice
1 Thermometer
1 Clamp

I chose to use the syringe as it has small divisions to help me make

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Rate of Reaction Essay - Rate of Reaction Coursework Aim: To investigate how temperature affects rate of reaction. Introduction: I am going to investigate how temperature affects the rate of reaction of hydrochloric acid with calcium carbonate. This is the reaction that will take place: Hydrochloric acid + Calcium Carbonate è Calcium Carbonate + Water + Carbon Dioxide The rate of reaction can be measured in various different ways: * Using a balance you can check the mass before the reaction and then after the reaction has taken place....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]1851 words
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an accurate measurement of the amount of carbon dioxide formed. I
chose to use a 50ml measuring cylinder rather than a 100ml one because
it has smaller divisions on it and is therefore more accurate.

Method:

1) Set up syringe as shown in the diagram.

2) Measure 50ml of hydrochloric acid, at room temperature, using the
measuring cylinder and pour into conical flask.

3) Immediately put 5 calcium carbonate chips in the acid and seal the
top using the cork on the syringe.

4) Start the stopwatch straight away and record the volume of carbon
dioxide formed every 10 seconds.

5) Repeat the experiment to ensure the results are reliable.

6) Repeat steps 1 – 4 for a range of different temperatures. Use the
beaker filled with ice to cool the acid and the Bunsen burner to warm
it.

Fair test:

To make this a fair test I will control a various variables that will
affect the rate of reaction. I the only variable I will change is the
temperature as this my independent variable. However I have to keep
the all other variables constant. I will use the same number of
calcium carbonate chips every time I repeat the experiment, if I use
more one time and less another time then the rate of reaction will
increase or decrease accordingly. Along with same number of chips I
will try to ensure that the chips that I use have the same surface
area because if the surface area changes so will the rate of reaction.
Also I will use the same amount of acid throughout the experiment
because if there is too much acid the rate of reaction will be fast
but if there is too little then it will be slow. In addition to this I
will ensure that the acid is of the same concentration throughout the
experiment.

Reliability: To make my results reliable I will repeat the experiment
and find an average volume of carbon dioxide formed at each
temperature. I will also use temperatures ranging from 15 degrees
Celsius to 60 degrees Celsius. Also to make sure I have enough points
on my graph to show a strong correlation I will take 6 readings of
carbon dioxide gas formed at each temperature. When I repeat the
experiment if I have any two points at the same temperature which are
very different I will repeat the experiment and I will use the results
which are closest together to find the average.

Safety: To ensure safety I will wear goggles to protect my eyes from
the acid. I will also wash my hands after using the acid as it is an
irritant.

Preliminary: From my preliminary work I learnt that if the temperature
of the acid is too low then it doesn’t react with the calcium
carbonate and no carbon dioxide gas is given off. I also found out
that if the temperature is too high the calcium carbonate reacts too
quickly and we can’t make enough readings of carbon dioxide formed.
This is why I am using the range of temperatures from 15 – 60 degrees
Celsius.

I also realised if I use small chips of marble they react too quickly
as well and as temperature increases it isn’t possible to make enough
readings of carbon dioxide formed. This is because the smaller the
surface area the higher the rate of reaction.

GRAPH

GRAPH

I worked out the rate of reaction by choosing a point on my line or
curve of best fit and then dividing the volume by the temperature (the
initial gradient). I used these results to draw my graph of rate of
reaction and time.

Conclusion: In my graphs of temperature and volume of carbon dioxide
formed the line of best fit shows an increase of carbon dioxide
formed. Also if I compare the line of best fit I can see that the
graphs with the higher temperatures have a steeper line. On the graph
of rate of reaction and temperature the shape shows the doubling of
the rate of reaction. From this I can conclude that as the temperature
of the hydrochloric acid increases so does the rate of reaction.

The reason for the rate of reaction increasing with the temperature
is, as the acid gets hotter the energy of the acid particles
increases, therefore causing more successful collisions. For a
successful collision to take place the acid particles must have a
minimum amount energy called the activation energy. With this energy
the acid particles can collide and react with the calcium carbonate
particles, but if the acid particles don’t have the activation energy
even if they collide with chips a reaction won’t take place. I know
that the activation energy for this reaction was approximately 15°c; I
know this because if the temperature was any lower than this no carbon
dioxide would be formed. Therefore as I increased the temperature the
particles gained more energy and had more successful collisions with
the calcium carbonate chips, this increased the amount of carbon
dioxide formed.

My graph of rate of reaction agrees with my prediction because as the
temperature increases so does the rate of reaction and from my line of
best fit it is possible to see that as the temperature increases by
10°C the rate of reaction approximately doubles. For example when the
temperature is 25°C the rate of reaction is 0.34ml/s and when the
temperature increases to 35°C the rate of reaction doubles to
0.68ml/s. This proves my quantitative prediction to be correct; as the
temperature increases the rate of reaction doubles.

Also my other graphs of amount of carbon dioxide formed and
temperature also agree with my prediction. This is because on the
graphs with higher temperatures the line of best fit is steeper and so
the initial gradient is higher, this proves that as the temperature
increases so does the rate of reaction.

Evaluation: I think that my measurements were quite accurate but not
completely because if they were there wouldn’t be any anomalous points
on my graphs. I think that the syringe I used was accurate because its
smallest division was 1ml. Also my measuring cylinder was accurate as
it was a 50ml measuring cylinder and again it had small divisions of
1ml, if I had used a larger measuring cylinder it wouldn’t be as
accurate because the divisions on it would be bigger. However whilst
making measurements I might’ve made a few human errors. Also when I
was measuring the volume of carbon dioxide formed sometimes it was
difficult to read the amount formed as it was in between the small
divisions so I had decide which millilitre it was closest to, this
might caused error as the measurement wasn’t exact. Also when I
measured the acid I tried to use the lower meniscus but in some cases
I forgot to check and so some measurements might not have been
completely accurate. Furthermore when I added I chips of calcium
carbonate to the acid they started to react straight away but I
couldn’t put the bung in straight away due to my slightly slow
reaction time, this is one of the human errors that I caused.

To get more reliable results I could’ve repeated my experiment again
to get a more reliable average. Some of my averages weren’t reliable
because when I repeated the experiment for the second time the first
and second time the results were not similar.

I might have some incorrect results because my evidence isn’t
completely reliable. The reason for this is, I only measured the
volume of carbon dioxide formed for 60 seconds, and to make my
evidence more reliable could have taken more measurements so I could
draw firmer conclusions.

To improve my experiment I could have used a balance to measure the
change in mass of the acid and calcium carbonate chips. This would
have been more accurate because I wouldn’t have to worry about carbon
dioxide escaping before I put the bung on. Another reason this method
would be more accurate is because when I counted the chips some were
different sizes and this made my results slightly less reliable.
However if I could weigh the chips then I would know the exact mass of
calcium carbonate that I started with. Therefore I could use the same
mass of calcium carbonate every time and this would make my results
more reliable.



Rates of Reaction Experiment

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Rates of Reaction Experiment


INTRODUCTION

This experiment is called ‘rates of reaction’, I will be partaking in
this experiment to find out what factors effect the ‘rate of
reaction’ between magnesium (strips) and hydrochloric acid. Each time
I repeat the experiment, I will be adding 0.5 moles of hydrochloric
acid and recording the volume of gas given out during the testing and
record the time it takes to give the reaction needed. A reaction is
taken place within the experiment because there is a collision of
particles in each element. When these two elements collide with each
other they form a chemical reaction ( a change which is irreversible)
we know this because a gas is given of too show a change, this is why
we record the amount of gas given off to show when the reactions takes
place and how big of a change it has made.

WORD EQUATION:

Magnesium + Hydrochloric Acid à à Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen Acid

CHEMICAL EQUATION

Mg + 2HCl H2 + MgCl2

Activation energy is the minimum amount of energy, which the particles
must have in order to react.

There are five factors, which can make a difference to the rate of a
reaction.

*1* The surface of the element

*2* Catalyst, the amount of the substance

*3* The concentration of the element

*4* Temperature, due the heat of the atmosphere

*5* Pressure pronounced to the substance

When a reaction takes place, the substances used are called reactants
and the substances produced are called products. Because the amount of
products being produced are increasing the number of reactants are or
should be decreasing.

To calculate if and how well products are increasing and reactants are
decreasing we use a number of ways, we firstly find out how much of
the reactant(s) is being used up and how much product(s) we are
gaining from this in a set time.

FORMULARS TO SOLVE THIS:

*** How much reactant is being used up***

Amount of reactant being used up

Reaction rate = Time taken

***How much product’s being produced in a set time***

Amount of product formed

Reaction rate = Time taken

A reaction can only take place when a successful collision is
occurred, so for a reaction to take place two different elements have
to concur with each other, this depends on the amount of atoms and
energy in the two elements, this is called a successful collision. A
chemical reaction can only take place when two different elements
collide with each other.

There are other methods to measure the rate (speed) of reaction.

Precipitation: observe a marker through the solution and predict how
long it takes to vanish.

A change in mass: a mass balance can only be carried out during the

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MLA Citation:
"Rates of Reaction Experiment." 123HelpMe.com. 10 Mar 2018
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process. The mass can only be read when the gas is given off.

Volume of gas produced - use a gas syringe to measure the amount of
gas given off.

PREDICTIONS

Our group has made a few predictions based on the Temperature of the
solution, Concentration of the acid, and the Surface area of solid
reactants. I have predicted that an increasing of the temperature,
concentration, catalysts and surface area will speed up the time in
which it takes for the reaction to occur in and increase the total
output volume of gas.

SURFACE AREA

I predicted that an increasing of the surface area will shorten the
time of the reaction taking pace. Outsized particles have a small
surface area in relation to their volume; fewer particles are open to
the elements and available for collisions. This means less collisions
will occur and it would be a much slower reaction.

Small particles have a large surface area in relation to their volume;
more particles are open to the elements and available for collisions.
This means more collisions and a faster reaction.

TEMPERATURE

My prediction is that if you increase the temperature of the solution
the reaction will take place in a faster amount of time. In a cold
reaction mixture the particles are moving quite slowly, the particles
will collide but with less force, and less collisions will be
successful.

When the reactants in the mixture is heated the particles will move
more quickly, the particles will collide with each other more
frequently, with superior power, and several collisions will be
successful.

CONCENTRATION

I predicted that if you increase the concentration of the acid, the
faster the reaction will occur. In a reaction where one or both of the
reactants are in low concentrations the particles are spread out and
will collide with each other less often resulting in less successful
collisions. In a reaction where one or both reactants are in high
concentrations the particles are crowse together and will collide with
each other more often, resulting in an increased number of successful
collisions.

CATALYSTS

A catalysts sbstance, which increases the rate of a chemical reaction,
without being changed during the procedure. Catalysts work by lowering
the amount of energy needed for a successful collision. They are very
specific to a particular reaction and are not used up during the
reaction.

PREDICTIONS AND THEORY

My prediction that if you increase the concentration of the acid, the
faster the reaction time. This can be supported with this theory. My
theory is that if we were to dilute the solution the particle would
become further apart then they would be in a concentrated solution. An
increase in the concentration will conclude in more frequent
collisions, therefore the more collisions that take place will be
adequately energetic for a reaction to occur.

When doing this experiment we did not increase the temperature but I
still feel with out testing out our theory that my prediction would be
correct on the fact that if I were to increase the temperature and/or
surface area, the reaction rate would be significantly faster. This is
because increasing the temperature causes an increase in the kinetic
energy of the particles (they would move a lot faster and create more
collisions). The minimum energy required for reaction will therefore
occur more often resulting in a greater rate of reaction.

EQUIPTMENT:

Goggles – Used for safety, to prevent harmful substances from reaching
your eyes and causing permanent eye loss.

Stopwatch – To time how long the reaction took.

Conical Flask – The flask in which the experiment takes place.

Measuring Cylinder/Beaker – Used to measure out 25cm³ of

Dilute Hydrochloric acid.

Syringe – To measure the amount of gas given off.

SAFETY

Safety is one of the most important topics you will learn in science
as it is regarding your health and well being.

Safety is especially important when handling harmful substances such
as Acid. It is compulsory that you take major safety precautions; this
includes wearing safety goggles and over safety wear that may be
avaliable. Some accidents involving harmful substances, such as acids,
can cause permanent injuries such as damaged eyesight this is why
supervisors in the lab advise you and provide you with safety
equipment while carrying out an experiment

All students should always learn all safety rules given by supervisors
even basic safety rules are required to be known.

GRAPH

ANALYSIS

When my group used Hydrochloric Acid with a concentration of 0.5Moles
the reaction took place much slower than it did when I used a higher
amount of acid. This is visible on my graph as the line that shows the
reaction at 0.5Moles is not very steep. My group found that the
steeper the line the quicker the time that the reaction took place in.
The reason for this is that the hydrogen gas given off was less so it
caused the reaction to take place slower.

The graph I produced shows that when a higher concentration of
Hydrochloric Acid is used the rate of reaction is much faster. When a
lower concentration of Hydrochloric Acid is used the longer it takes
for the gas to be produced. This means that the higher the
concentration of acid the faster the time the reaction will take
place. This is because when using the higher concentrated solution the
reactants are used up quicker in the reaction.

EVALUATION

Whilst completing this experiment I have proved that the more
substance used in the reaction (hydrochloric acid) the faster the
reaction will take place. This also shows, the higher the
concentration of the substance the closer the particles would be to
each other so it increases the possibility of collision which would
decrease the time in which the reaction takes to occur, and also the
more particles that are present in the reaction the greater chance
there is for numerous successful collisions.

If I had been given more time to carry out this experiment, I would
have tested every rising concentration of Hydrochloric Acid again.
This would have made the experiment fairer providing more reliable and
accurate results.

CONCLUSION

I have come to my conclusion by looking at my results and graph that I
have produced. I have also used personal observation to provide
evidence for my decision. My conclusion is that the higher the
concentration of Hydrochloric Acid the faster the reaction.



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